The youths had to go barefoot, and were dressed only in a tunic both in summer and in winter. When male Spartans began military training at age seven, they would enter the agoge system. Second Battle of Mantinea.

Spartan army

The groin and throat were among the favorite targets. Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece.

Spartan army and Spartiate. Herodotus records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe.

For other uses, see Sparta disambiguation. He commended it as a model for England. Not only does it protect the user, but it also protects the whole phalanx formation.

In other Greek city-states, free citizens were part-time soldiers who, when not at war, carried on other trades. Those deemed strong entered the agoge regime at the age of seven. In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands. It was also in that time Sparta adopted its own cavalry and archers. Helot women were often used as wet nurses. Sparta on the other hand is the country of lovely women, a people epithet. Spartan ascendancy did not last long.

The admirals were subordinated to the vice-admiral, called epistoleus. They were the chief priests of the state and also maintained communication with the Delphian sanctuary, which always exercised great authority in Spartan politics. Descendants of non-Spartan citizens were not able to follow the agoge. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek. Instead, the helots were given a subordinate position in society more comparable to serfs in medieval Europe than chattel slaves in the rest of Greece.

When this happened, it as a rule caused the army to be routed. Plato goes on to praise Spartan women's ability when it came to philosophical discussion. The valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt.

In this respect, classical Sparta was unique in ancient Greece. Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world. However, there is no evidence of this in archaic Sparta. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanges were widely considered to be among the best in battle. Only native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in and contribute financially to one of the syssitia.

All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia. Ceramics, Cuisine and Culture. Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the leading force of the unified Greek military during the Greco-Persian Wars. The Spartan's main weapon was the dory spear.

The Spartan hoplite followed a strict laconic code of honor. This fact meant that, when the Peloponnesian War broke out, the Spartans were supreme on land, the tacit dimension polanyi but the Athenians supreme at sea.

For other uses, see Spartan disambiguation. The University of North Carolina Press. In later periods Spartans did start to readopt armour, but on a much lesser scale than during the Archaic period.

Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in Western culture following the revival of classical learning. For long range, they carried a javelin. Word study tool of Ancient languages. These mansions were destroyed by earthquake and fire, and archaeologists consider them the possible palace of Menelaus himself.

Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia and a center for the processing of goods such as citrus and olives. Sparta's agriculture consisted mainly of barley, wine, cheese, grain, and figs.

Helots also travelled with the Spartan army as non-combatant serfs. It does occur in Greek as an equivalent of Laconia and Messenia during the Roman and early Byzantine periods, mostly in ethnographers and lexica glossing place names. The Spartiate population was subdivided into age groups. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, p. The duties of the kings were primarily religious, judicial, and military.


Spartan army


Lakedaimona was until the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia. Nonetheless, it was able to continue as a regional power for over two centuries. Helots did not have voting or political rights. Sparta in popular culture.

Contrary to popular belief, Spartans valued knowledge and education more than the Athenians did. Certain penalties were imposed upon those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life. An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian. This was the Golden Age of Warfare.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The fleeing enemy were put to the sword only as far as the field of battle extended.

These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizens kleros and were tended to by helots. There is considerable evidence that the Spartans, certainly in the archaic period, were not educated as one-sidedly as Aristotle asserts. The Spartans were a minority of the Lakonian population. Inevitably, these two powers collided.

Hellenistic and Roman Sparta. According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. There was at least one helot revolt ca. However, other scholars question this interpretation. Argos Athens Corinth Thebes.